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+ - Re: Re: Clarke (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

ez egy proba, kerlek toroljetek,

(webes bekuldes, a bekuldo gepe: cc525273-a.union1.nj.home.com)
+ - Pollution Online Newsletter (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

> ============================================================
Pollution Online Newsletter
Volume 2   Issue 43
Wednesday, August 18, 1999
> ============================================================

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Soil Quality and Soil Erosion by Lal; Rattan
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1) Aussies Use New Process to Remediate Olympic-site Soil
2) Anguil Controls VOC Emissions from Asian PTA Plant
3) First U.S. Contract to Recycle Nuclear Steam Generator

> ------------------------------------------------------------

1) Aussies Use New Process to Remediate Olympic-site Soil
The two-stage treatment involves first crushing the soil then heating it in a
"thermal desorption plant" to drive out the contaminants.


2) Anguil Controls VOC Emissions from Asian PTA Plant
A recent VOC control project for a PTA plant in Asia explains the technology
selection and design considerations used by Anguil Environmental Systems, 


3) First U.S. Contract to Recycle Nuclear Steam Generator
GTS Duratek is teaming with Siemens Power Corp. and Bechtel Power Corp. to
fulfill the first contract to process and recycle steam generators from 
power plants in the U.S.


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> ------------------------------------------------------------

1) Ultrasonic Level and Flow Monitor. By: Greyline Instruments(Massena,NY
Featuring a non-contacting ultrasonic sensor and a built-in three-key
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The software is designed for companies' measuring, monitoring, and reporting
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The HFID Model 3-400 incorporates the company’s hydrogen flame ionization
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> -------------------------------------------------------------------

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+ - india "szuletesnapjarol", lester browntol (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

India Reaches 1 Billion --NO CELEBRATION PLANNED

Lester R. Brown and Brian Halweil

Sometime on Sunday, August 15, India's population will pass the one
billion mark, making it the second member of the exclusive one billion
club, along with China. But reaching one billion is not a cause for
celebration in a country where one half of the adults are illiterate, more
than half of all children are undernourished, and one third of the people
live below the poverty line.

Each year India is adding 18 million people, roughly another Australia. By
2050, U.N. demographers project that it will have added another 530
million people for a total of more than 1.5 billion. If India continues on
the demographic path as projected, it will overtake China by 2045,
becoming the world's most populous country.

Well before hitting the one billion mark, the demands of India's
population were outrunning its natural resource base. This can be seen in
its shrinking forests, deteriorating rangelands, and falling water tables.
For Americans to understand the pressure of population on resources in
India, it would be necessary to squeeze the entire U.S. population east of
the Mississippi River and then multiply it by four. 

Although India has tripled its grain harvest over the last half century,
food production has barely kept up with population. Riceland productivity
has doubled while that of wheat has more than tripled. Earlier maturing,
high-yield wheats and rices, combined with a tripling of irrigated area,
have enabled farmers to double crop winter wheat and summer rice in the
north and to double crop rice in the south. 

As the nineties unfold, the rise in grainland productivity in India is
slowing as it is in many other countries. Against this backdrop, the
continuing shrinkage of cropland per person now threatens India's food
security. In 1960, each Indian had an average of 0.21 hectares of
grainland. By 1999, the average had dropped to 0.10 hectares per person,
or less than half as much. And by 2050, it is projected to shrink to a
meager 0.07 hectares per person. At this point, an Indian family of five
will have to produce their wheat or rice on 0.35 hectares of land or less
than one acre-the size of a building lot in a middle class U.S. suburb. 

Falling water tables are now also threatening India's food production. The
International Water Management Institute (IWMI) estimates that withdrawals
of underground water are double the rate of aquifer recharge. As a result,
water tables are falling almost everywhere. If pumping of water is double
the recharge of an aquifer, then eventual depletion of the aquifer will
reduce water pumped by half. 

In a country where irrigated land accounts for 55 percent of the grain
harvest and where the lion's share of irrigation water comes from
underground, falling water tables are generating concern. The IWMI
estimates that aquifer depletion could reduce India's grain harvest by one
fourth. Falling water tables will likely lead to rising grain prices on a
scale that could destabilize not only grain markets, but possibly the
government itself. With 53 percent of all children already undernourished
and underweight, any drop in food supply can quickly become life

With a staggering 338 million children under 15 years of age, India is
also facing a major challenge on the educational front. Despite efforts to
educate its people during the 52 years since it achieved independence in
1947, some 54 percent of adults in the world's largest democracy cannot
read or write.  Failure to provide adequate education has undermined
efforts to slow population growth since female access to education is a
key to smaller families. 

Providing enough jobs for the 10 million new entrants into the job market
each year is even more difficult. Nowhere is this more evident than in
agriculture where the number of farms increased from 48 million in 1960 to
105 million in 1990. Meanwhile, the average farm shrank from 2.7 hectares
to less than 1.6 hectares, a reduction of some 42 percent. By 2020, the
land will pass to another generation-and another round of fragmentation
will occur, shrinking farm size even more, threatening the ability of
those living on the land to earn a livelihood, and triggering a potential
migration from the land that could inundate India's cities. 

After several decades of rapid population growth, the government of India,
overwhelmed by sheer numbers, is suffering from demographic fatigue. After
trying to educate all the children coming of school age, trying to find
jobs for all the young people coming into the job market, and trying to
deal with the environmental fallout of rapid population growth, such as
deforestation and soil erosion, India's leaders are worn down and its
fiscal resources spread thin.  As a result, when a new threat emerges,
such as aquifer depletion, the government is not able to respond
effectively. If this decrease in water supplies causes food production to
drop, death rates may start to rise. 

As noted earlier, India's population is projected to reach 1.5 billion by
2050, but there are doubts as to whether the natural resource base will
support such growth. These projections will not materialize either because
India accelerates the shift to smaller families, alleviating the projected
additional stress on the resource base by reducing births, or because it
fails to do so and the combination of deteriorating conditions pushes up
death rates. 

The prospect of rising death rates as a result of aquifer depletion is no
longer as hypothetical as it once seemed. Death rates are already rising
in Africa, where governments, also overwhelmed by several decades of rapid
population growth, have been unable to respond effectively to the HIV
epidemic. As a result, adult infection rates already exceed 20 percent in
several countries, including Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. In the
absence of a medical breakthrough, these countries will likely lose one
fifth of their adult population within the next decade. In Zimbabwe, a
model of development in Africa until a few years ago, life expectancy has
fallen from 60 years in 1990 to 44 years at present and is expected to
drop to 39 years by 2010. 

In some ways, India today is paying the price for its earlier
indiscretions when, despite its impoverished state, it invested in a
costly effort to design and produce nuclear weapons and succeeded in
becoming a member of the nuclear club. As a result, it now has a nuclear
arsenal capable of protecting the largest concentration of impoverished
citizens on earth. 

Even today, India spends 2.5 percent of its GNP for military purposes but
only 0.7 percent on health, which includes family planning. Unless India
can quickly reorder priorities, it risks falling into a demographic dark
hole, one where population will begin to slow because death rates are

It may be time for India to redefine security. The principal threat now
may not be military aggression from without but population growth from


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A nagycsalomjai romai katolikus plebaniahivatal ("Velka Calomija", 
Szlovakia) mellett mukodo Children of Europe polgari tarsulas ezuton 
ertesiti minden erdeklodovel, hogy a juliusi horvatorszagi nyari tabor 
utani pozitiv visszhangok es a tovabbi nagy erdeklodes eredmenyekeppen meg 
egy turnust szervez mindazok (es a tobbiek) reszere, akik az elozorol 
lemaradtak. Az elozovel ellentetben erre felnottek, csaladok es maganosok 
is johetnek.
A szallashely mindossze 150 m-re van az ismert, allergias megbetegedesek 
gyogyitasaval foglalkozo (mellesleg meregdraga) tengerparti gyogykozponttol 

Helyszin: Horvatorszag, Dugi Otok sziget, Luka kozseg
> Idopont: 1999. augusztus 27. - szeptember 5. (A gyerekek csupan ket napot 
mulasztanak a sulibol, mivel 2.-an (csutortok) van az iskolakezdes.
Elszallasolas: 50 ferohelyes, erre a celra atalakitott plebanian, 20 m-re a 
tengertol. Figyelem: nem "marvanykadas-aranycsapos" luxuslakosztalyok ! A 
szobak min.6 szemelyesek, de aki jon, az elsosorban nem aludni jon ide ! 
Fiatalok es kevesbe igenyesek szamara idealis korulmenyek !
Reszveteli dij: felnotteknek 5.100,- Sk, gyerekeknek 4.600,- Sk 
(tartalmazza: autobusz-utikoltseg, hajout oda-vissza, elszallasolas, teljes 
panzio, komplex biztositas, kozos programok autobusszal: ferences kolostor 
meglatogatasa a szigeten, valamint a sziget masik vegen levo Sacharun-i 
beach meglatogatasa.
Alternativ lehetoseg: a plitvicei tavak meglatogatasa (hazafele), valamint 
igeny szerinti programok

Tovabbi felvilagositas a 0854 947160, 0707 7898571, 0905 609454, 0905 
696729-es telefonszamokon*, illetve e-mailen a kovetkezo cimeken kaphatok:

> ------------------------------------------------------------------------  
*kulfoldi erdeklodok reszere: Szlovakia nemzetkozi hivoszama 00421
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------